Author's Diction~Vipin Behari Goyal: 2015

Wednesday, December 30, 2015

The Hindu Caste System and identification of Archetypes based on the collective unconscious

Can caste system be abolished?


Mochi
A shoemaker of Mochi sub-Caste making shoes in a village near Jodhpur



No system can survive without degeneration for centuries if the foundation of such system is not laid on strong rational belief. The caste system in Hindu is one such belief which still stronghold the Indian society. The society was dominated by Muslims and then by the British for many centuries who did not support caste system. On the contrary, their forced conversion of lower caste Hindus on the ground of discrimination, forced upon them by upper caste Hindus. The caste system is the backbone of Hindus who are in majority in Indian society.

The personal unconscious of a Hindu is dominated by the collective unconscious of the caste that has peculiar idiosyncrasies assigned to that caste. The grounds for "division of labour" were not arbitrary but scientific. Manu was the first social scientist to codify the prevailing order in the society. The order was established many centuries before Manu-Smirti was written around the 2nd century BCE to 3rd century CE.

The caste allocation was based on many physical and mental attributes of the individual. It later on became hereditary, especially when it was codified and a 'status stigma' was attached and caste were discriminated as upper and lower on the basis of tasks assigned to them.

Brahmins did interpretation, analysis and teaching of scripts written in Sanskrit. When caste became hereditary the Brahmins born with inferior mental capabilities gave thrust on rituals. With advent of materialism a caste which was supposed to depend on alms and charity of affluent segment of the society also started extracting wealth by creating fear of hell. This style has been followed in almost all religions of the world.
The ego born by personal unconscious related with superiority of caste is the hallmark of this caste. Scholarly achievements and progress on the path of enlightenment were their major pursuit.

Kshatriya the warrior caste constituted the Army. They invariably had a good physique and were obsessed with developing expertise in the use of weapons. Bravery, chivalry, philanthropy and magnanimity were inherent virtues of this caste.

Vaishya were associated with business. Ethics in business were important. If Brahmins were revered for scholarly achievements, Kshatriya for chivalry the Vaishya were revered for accumulation of wealth by ethical means. They were shrewd, visionary, ethical, submissive and moderate in nature.

Shudra which was servant class of the society did all kinds of menial jobs. They were shoemakers, tailors, sweepers, barbers, blacksmith and other hundreds of essential functions were assigned to them. They were physically strong, meek, obedient and hard worker.

No caste was superior to another. They all were equally important to the society.

We can assume that Brahmin represents the Super Ego, Kshatriya and Vaishya, Ego, and Shudra represented Libido.

Emperor Jones fled to the forest in the play of Eugene O’Neill and was haunted by the illusion of being sold as slave though in real life he had never been sold as slave due to collective unconscious of Congo tribe that he belonged, similarly let us see what would haunt different caste archetypes in similar situation.

A brahmin would be haunted by sexual crime, even if he has not committed any, since there is lots of sexual suppression on the path of enlightenment, Kshatriya would be haunted by an act of cowardice, because he is supposed to prefer death to cowardice, Vaishya for earning money by unethical means due to greed and Shudra for punishment for disobedience. These fears have roots in their collective unconsciousness which surfaces when they have no veneer of culture to protect them.

© Vipin Behari Goyal

Related Post

Related Books
2. Maya

Thursday, December 24, 2015

The Art of Story Writing

Art is Long but The Story is Short

author's Diction


The short story has not been defined precisely in the lower limit of word count.  The Novel is over 40000 words, Novella is 17500 to 40000 words, Novelette is 7500 to 17500 words and a short story is less than 7500 words.

There is a myth that Earnest Hemingway wrote Eight Word shortest story of the world.

For Sale: baby shoes, never worn.



Augusto Monterroso is a Guatemalan short story writer best known for his 8-word story titled “El Dinosaurio”:

When I woke up, the dinosaur was still there.

The famous story of two strangers travelling in a train. One asked “Do you believe in ghost?”
“No, ” said the other, and disappeared.

The title of the smallest book in the world is “Who rules the world?” And it is said that it has only one page with one word written on it “Money”.

The “Chicken soup for the soul” series is a compilation of many motivational and inspirational stories.

William Shakespeare in Hamlet says “Brevity is the soul of wit”.

Art of brevity is the soul of Twitter also. To express oneself shortly and precisely is the theme of the world. People skip the pages filled with long narration even when they read voluminous classical novels.

William Strunk’sThe Elements of Style” a writing manual is popular because of its brevity.

Stephen King in his second forward of “On Writing” admits “shorter the book, the less the bullshit” and in third forward says “to write is human, to edit is divine”.

A short story has a fully developed theme. "TheAccident" is a wonderful story written by Bhisham Sahni.

The protagonist is a young woman who is engrossed in conversation with her friend. She missed the saag meat cooked by her servant Jagga, so she narrates his story to her friend. The young wife of Jagga was seduced by the younger brother of her husband. When Jagga comes to know about it, he commits suicide. The husband of protagonist settles police, widow and other relatives of Jagga amicably. Shockingly, he knew that his younger brother was having an illicit relationship with the wife of Jagga. He defended the evil act of his younger brother by saying to his wife “In youth everyone sows his wild oats and so did Vikki”.

The story is a satirical tragedy. Despite the depressive end of Jagga the story is full of humor. The chauvinistic male in Indian society is insensitive and callous to a great extent. Women do not despise such man. On the contrary, they praise it as manly quality. When her husband gives money to Jagga’s wife and father to compensate his own guilt, she says “It’s all over and done with, what’s the point in squandering money like this?” The reader is baffled by the meanness of husband and wife.

It shows a middle class bourgeois tendency to exploit the labor class of society.

© Vipin Behari Goyal
Advocate, Rajasthan High Court, Jodhpur, India




Sunday, December 6, 2015

Exorcism

Cure of Evil Spirits By Priest and Guru


Tarot Expert Viviana Druga

Exorcism is an age-old technique of evicting an evil spirit occupying a person or a place. All regions, cults, sect, clan, schools of faith describe evil spirits and have a ritual of exorcism. The rites performed across the globe  has many similarities.

In Hindu Mythology Garuda Purana has long descriptions of Hell and Heaven that every soul is allowed to dwell depending upon the Karma. A detailed account of all your deeds in every past birth is kept by Dharmaraj.

Performance artist and Tarot Expert Viviana Druga

According to Christian belief the judgment is pronounced on doomsday. Dr. Faustus a play by Christopher Marlowe gives interesting descriptions of miracles of Dark Magic. Catholic exorcist is a consecrated priest who practices Ritulae Romanum by the authority of Bishop. Since the technique is complicated the risk factor cannot be over ruled.

Since it is believed that all Priests, Mullah and Sadhu (Guru) are messengers of God and represent good spirit, they are entitled to perform the ceremony of exorcism.

It does not need a survey to find that females are more likely to fall victim of evil spirits.



Famous shrines like Mahendipur Balaji in Rajasthan and Meera Datar Dargah in Gujarat are the most effective places for exorcism.

It is possible that some of the visitors suffer from psychic disorder. They may be patient of Hysteria or Schizophrenia and need help of Psychiatrists. Due to illiteracy and superstitions people have faith in exorcism. Paulo Coelho in his book "Witch of Portobello" has described clairvoyant powers of witchcraft.Athena  the main character's mind was free and looked at witchery as a better religion than Catholic.


Performance Artist and Tarot Expert Viviana Druga

Voodoo is a mixture of Southern American and African practices combined with Roman Catholic rites performed as part of sorcery for scaring away evil spirits.

Persons who are emotionally unstable or born under weak planetary positions are more likely to become victim of evil spirits. The teenage girls are the most common prey for evil spirits. It could be due to unhygienic practices during  menstruation and contempt for evil spirit in teenage girls.

In Hindu the exorcism is of many kinds. If you have simply been caught by an ‘evil eye’ specially when you look cute or achieve unexpected success, it can be cured by a priest of the temple of Hanuman. Every Hindu child must have been taken by his parents to such a shrine in childhood for cure. If the ‘evil eye’ was strong, you may be required to visit more than once.

In such rite universally the sacred words are chanted, holy water is sprinkled on the patient and a broom made of feathers is used to clean the possession.

If an evil spirit is powerful, very offended with the patient (if patient has urinated at the dwelling of evil spirit viz. deserted places, abandoned buildings, old tree, graveyard), it would need a specialist. Such specialists in the Hindu religion are called Tantric. They could be of any caste, but mostly they are Sadhu, Baba, Aghori or Guru.

bollywood
Padmini Kolhapure in Gerhard


The ritual is a sacred ceremony performed in privacy. Like a doctor examines the patient in privacy and one trusts the doctor  similarly you have to trust the Tantric/Sadhu/Guru also. If you lack the belief why did you opt for the treatment. The Tantric touches certain plexuses or chakras to strengthen them for the cure. How you willingly take off your cloth on the command of the doctor and never blame him for touching your body, similarly for tantric cure it would be highly malicious to accuse a Sadhu's intentions in the performance of rites.

Tweet: Eradication of Evil is Exorcism; Be it an individual or the society.

References


A key to Indian Mysticism " Maya in search of Tantric father"

Performance artist and Tarot Card Expert : Viviana Druga

Tantra


© Vipin Behari Goyal
Advocate, Rajasthan High Court, Jodhpur, India

Other related posts



Tuesday, December 1, 2015

Hollow Modern Women castigated By T.S. Eliot in The Waste Land

Reputation is more important than chastity for Modern Women

Wiki
Rhine-Daughters

Modern Man and the Ape Man came across each other at the bridge, once again. Modern Man had come to admire nature on the recommendation of his Psychiatrist and Ape Man had come to admire the technology of man-made bridge. When Modern Man asked Ape Man about his views on boredom, he was reluctant to share. When Modern Man insisted he spoke only one line.

“Here one can neither stand nor lie nor sit”

For Modern Man the line was simply absurd. What can someone do if not stand, lie or sit? Fly? He was annoyed at the Ape Man, as if he was responsible for what Tiresias said.

"No you can’t even fly, because you do not have a powerful imagination like Super Man". Modern Man felt stuck. He looked at Ape Man.

Ape Man explained “To look for anything is to act on the hypothesis that it exists, faith precedes faith in regressive manner.” Modern Man remembered having heard this too. Ape Man said “You can’t take stand for your belief, you can’t prostrate in surrender, nor you can contemplate in lotus position. So you are doomed.”

Modern Man was stunned till he received a voice message from his wife. “I am at a party and will return home at late tonight. Do not wait for me. Serve dinner yourself. Love you, baby”. Followed by the sound of a kiss.

They had an instant eye contact. Ape Man was smiling satirically. Both had noticed that excuse to party was lame. The voice was hollow and there was no background noise of the party.

Ape Man said “If there were wateror….if there were the sound of water only.” After a pause, he said "Hollow Woman”.

Modern Man ignored the remark. He did not want to discuss his personal relationship with his wife with the Ape Man.

Ape Man could read the mind of Modern Man. He changed the topic. He told to Modern Man “Your civilisation is travelling back, towards us and our civilisation is travelling forward towards you. Like a time traveller we are neither past nor future. I hear about your nude beaches and organic farming. You are back to nature on the advice of your psychiatrist. In my clan many women have started covering their private parts with sheep skin. I know this shame will make our society corrupt. Women with covered skin becomes more desirable. This will lead to all other types of corruption.”

“Stop them from wearing loincloth. You are the Head” Modern Man retorted.

“Society is also dynamic. It evolves and undergoes a change with the advancement of time like an individual”. Ape Man was now in a trance. He continued "Chinua Achebe in Things Fall Apart could not stop society from evolving”.

Modern Man knew he was talking to a Time Traveller.

Modern Man decided to take his opinion. “Why did you call our women as hollow” he asked.

“Because they are more bothered about reputation than chastity. Remember Philomela?” Ape Man asked.

Modern Man nodded. He had been reading The Waste Land many times a day. Chastity was no more a virtue in his society. Everything is mechanical. Even Sex. Mechanisation is Boredom. Even all the attempts to break the monotony have also become stereotyped.

Chastity of Pamela by Richardson was mocked at in Shamela by Henry Fielding. Chastity even a fake chastity is better, as a bad man is better than bad name.©

Things were falling into place when the Modern Man received a voice message from his girlfriend.

To save himself from embarrassment Modern Man walked away.


© Vipin Behari Goyal
Advocate, Rajasthan High Court, Jodhpur, India

Saturday, November 28, 2015

Dilemma of Modern Man expounded by T.S.Eliot in "The Wasteland"


No Fear in Handful of Dust

GOOGLE IMAGES


The modern man returned disappointed. He could not commit suicide due to the gadget devised by him. The sensor had suggested him to read “The Wasteland”. The book had caused anxiety in him. He went for suicide since he found the life aimless and purposeless. After reading the book he was confused.
How the same act if done for procreation or for love is justified and is of high moral values, and condemned as a symbol of spiritual decay if  done for pleasure. Since the author did not have any convincing argument to support his Theory of Spiritual degeneration”, he had randomly picked up scriptures of mystic Eastern, to provide a solution which was already known to the entire civilization. The concept of Da in Brihdaranyak and “The Fire Sermon” in Buddhism did not match with dialectic and didactics of modern man.

The modern man had a comfortable relationship with his girlfriend. After living together for last two years, they found that they were not intimate enough to perform the act.

So Modern Man was of opinion that the author of that monologue was obsessed with sex.  In 430 lines verse, at many a spot, modern man thought, he could read the mind of Poet even though his spokesman was Tiresias. The poet had devised some new sounds the exact meaning of which were obscure, but were led to the vulgar representation of the act.

And still she cried, and still the world pursues,
jug jug to dirty ears. (V. 100)

Twit twit twit
Jug jug jug jug jug jug ( V. 200)

Only a cock stood on the rooftree
Co co rico co co rico(v.390)

Weialala leia
Wallala leialala (v. 280)

Modern man did not believe in experimenting with phonetics and linguist, especially by a poet.

The narration of episode of Typist and Clerk was disgusting. The typist gave herself with total indifference and apathy.

Exploring hands encounter no defense;
His vanity requires no response,
And makes a welcome of indifference. (V. 240)

In the opinion of Modern Man such indifference in the act was admirable.
The elaborate preparations which were once prerequisite of idle man and woman to perform the act were neither affordable nor tolerable.

The stories narrated by the three daughters of the Thames are abominable. The Modern Men had refined taste so far as art was concerned. He did not find the description was in good taste.

Undid me. By Richmond I raised my
knees
Supine on the floor of narrow canoe.

No one who wants to reject the act itself would use such lucid descriptions. Modern man found such erotic imagination despicable. Also, it was quite a distorted version of ‘Gotterdammerung’( The Rhine-daughters). Moreover, it is more shocking that Thames-daughters found their loss of chastity as inevitable.

He wept. He promised “a new start.”
I made no comment. What should I
Resent?(V. 300)

The description of the third daughter was a shock to Modern Man.

I can connect
Nothing with nothing.

Modern man was in search of such electromagnetic waves that can connect nothing with nothing. It could be quite tedious to establish such a relationship.

Modern Man could like only one line in the poem.

“Shall I at least set my lands in order?”(V. 420)

That could have been a nice beginning.

The Modern Man was about to throw away the book, When The Ape Man came. He saw the book in the hand of Modern Man and laughed hysterically. The Modern Man was surprised that The Ape Man knew about the book. He felt humiliated and told the whole story.

Ape Man told the Modern Man that he had read the book superficially. Eliot said "At bottom: that is great way down; the bottom is the bottom."
Modern Man could not understand how an Ape Man could understand such a complex dilemma that he was facing.

Ape Man continued "Beneath all Beauty and Ugliness lies Fear or Boredom." (Tweet This)

Can't you see the fear and terror in 'Marie', Hyacinths girl and Madame Sosostris ? They all are scared of 'handful of dust' or crop of corpses. Fear is the key that operates Unreal City.


Hooded Man in Unreal City


Modern Man had no fear in his mind. So he had failed to understand the poem and its implications.

Ape Man could read his mind. He said "Fear is for us, for you it is Boredom. You went to commit suicide out of boredom."

Ape Man was about to explain boredom when he heard a roar of lion and eloped in the jungle. 

He asked Modern Man to contemplate about Mr. Prufrock while departing.

Mr. J A. Prufrock as symbol of Modern Man:


Mr. Prufrock in the poem “The Love Songs of J. A.Prufrock” by T.S.Eliot is also a symbol of Modern Man.He suffers the same dilemma which all the modern men suffer.

“Do I dare ? and do I dare?” is the anguish caused by a mental conflict. He is constantly forced to suppress his desire to act on natural instincts. His psyche is governed by Artificial Society which is the society of inhibitions and taboos. Modern Man wants to be rational and rebel against the irrational society but he is caught in the trap of his own mental make up which is framed by Artificial Society. He thus accepts his defeat and finds a cowardly escape in camouflaging his elemental passions behind the mask of being gentleman.

“Time yet for a hundred decisions
And for a hundred visions and revisions”

Modern Man has no paucity of time. He is not worried that time is fleeting. He is puzzled by immovability and timelessness of time. Geoffrey Bullough comments “ all wars are same war, all love making the same love making, all home coming the same home coming”.

Modern Man suffers from fear that is ecstatic. The thunder should awake a fear, but modern man due to ecstasy is unable the read the massage of  moment of thunder to surrender, release and wellbeing.

Another dilemma of Modern Man is of “folded double lie”. One is romantic lie of “Self Love” which is biggest hurdle on the path of “Universal Love”, second is “lie of Authority” which comes from State or Collective Man,neither of them really exist.

W.H.Auden in his poem September 1,1939 has given the final massage “We must love one another or die”. Though he was not sure about this doctrine and found it impracticable and deleted from the poem. This shows the importance of “Agape” if  you prefer theology.

No one exists alone. The future of entire human civilisation depends on application of Agape universally. Modern Man is blinded by Eros and though he talks of Agape but in reality neither he believes in it nor acts to implement it.


Modern Man thinks that a great poetic work was possible even if he did not believe in “Original Sin”. “The Fall” is not historic one time phenomenon but a continuous process for human civilisation.


© Vipin Behari Goyal
Advocate, Rajasthan High Court, Jodhpur, India

Thursday, November 19, 2015

Men will never be equal to Women

Negative Feminism

Havelock Ellis 

Wollstonecraft and Virginia Wolfe had a great vision. They knew the direction in which the society was heading. They talked about issues which will remain relevant for many centuries to come. The saga that started with demand of a room of one's own, has not come to an end. Every strong thesis has an equally strong antithesis. Feminism does not have any antithesis. Neither Masculism  nor Egalitarianism serves the purpose. Anti-Feminist is, one who does not subscribe to Feminism. Feminism is a theory of the political, economic and social equality of the sexes and covers all organized activities to claim the right, and protect the interest of women. My antithesis of Feminism is Negative Feminism. "Negative Feminism is protection of the right and needs of Men. Some important components of this theory are as follows:

1. Masculism-
This term is still unknown to the dictionary. Though an ambiguous page on Wikipedia says that it is the advocacy of the rights and needs of men. In case of women it is ‘right and interest’ while in case of men it is ‘right and needs’. This explains a lot. The women are already standing at the top of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. They are searching for identity, which in a way is self-realization or self actualization need. Men on the other hand, are striving to fulfill their physiological needs. The responsibility to earn a square meal is on his shoulder. He is supposed to work hard and earn all amenities for his family. The society condemns a man who fails to do so. On the play 'Death of a Salesman’ by Arthur Miller, Willy Loman commits suicide when he fails to provide facilities for his family. He had one dream; to fulfil the dreams of his family members. On the other hand, in the play ‘The Doll’s House’ by Henrik Ibsen, Nora Helmer deserted her husband and three children just because her husband refused to take the blame of forgery she had committed. Either way, it is the man who is a sufferer if he fails to fulfil expectations of  woman from him.


women rights


Women lack genius and genuine morality, men lack passion and compassion, for these qualities they have to imitate each other.

2. Bachelorette
The female counterpart of the Bachelor is Spinster. Now a single unmarried woman is called Bachelorette. Spinster is woman past the usual age of marrying and is considered unlikely to marry. So a male spinster is still waiting to be christened. We need to acknowledge the psychological needs of the man who is past the usual age of marriage and is considered unlikely to marry. Why famous artist like Voltaire, Beethoven, Leonardo Di Vinci and Henry James chose to remain celibate? Why an imaginative genius child is retarded by a dominating woman in his life ? Women may be classified on the basis of their relationship with men. Prefix of Miss and Mrs. defines their status and thus availability but men have been denied any such privilege. Virginity also defines a women, but no parallel word is coined for males of the same species. Man has constantly been ignored, since he has no platform to raise his voice. While the word prostitute and whore have ancient origin the word gigolo was coined in 1920.

3. Literature in appreciation of female beauty
Voluminous literature has been created in praise of female beauty. Some characters like Helen and Cleopatra have become immortal, though it is not sure if they were really beautiful. Males have received no such praise even from female authors. Female authors have never revealed if they are attracted by the physical attributes of a male. They pose that character is more important for men. In ‘Joseph Andrews’ by Henry Fielding, Joseph writes a letter to his sister Pamela. He writes"chastity is as great virtue in a man as in woman”, and vows to preserve it at any cost.Men deserves better attention from women writers. We need more female writers to write about physical beauty of men and his sufferings if he chooses to remain chaste.

4. Henpecked Husbands
Havelock Ellis in his book "Psychology of Sex" said 95% male masturbates and rest tell a lie. The same is true for henpecked husband. All married men are henpecked in some way or other. Either they are proud of it or they are ashamed of it. This is an eternal suffering. Nagging is said to be the birthright of women.This is high time we make certain law to protect rights of henpecked husbands.


5. Cuckold Husbands 
The definition is funny, but not the situation.
William Congreve in his famous play "The way of the world" has shown deceit among upper class English households. Fainall complains "My wife is an arrant wife and I am a cuckold...".A cuckold husband is more despised character than a whore. There is a complete genre of man which is grossly condemned by society. Pimp is one of them. We have stories about famous harlot and prostitutes but nobody has written about pimps who made them famous.

Other related posts

© Vipin Behari Goyal
Advocate, Rajasthan High Court, Jodhpur, India


Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Sins of Individualism

Why Suicide is the final solution for Modern Man

literature

Superman at bridge

There were three Homo sapiens The Apeman, The Modern Man and The Superman. They looked very different from each other. Only a biologist could say that they belonged to the same species of the animal kingdom.


They all lived on the same island. They were constantly in conflict about values. The conflict grew in magnitude with each passing day. The thought of suicide occurred to them simultaneously. They reached to the bridge. They did not know what was at the other end of the bridge. So far they could see, it was spread like Anaconda on the sea.

The Superman  decided to walk into unknown and discover the other end of the bridge. He had accomplished impossible by sheer 'will to power'. He was an explorer and instead of reason he had more faith in the power of his sub-conscious mind.

The Man had a doubt if he can use the bridge which was made by 'the strength of collective man' to attain his personal objective of suicide. He stood on the bank in contemplative mood. He desired to be 'loved alone' due to his 'self love'. He loved the seclusion caused by his self love. He had no desire to cross the impassable sea of universal love.


apeman


The Apeman was interested in suicide out of curiosity. He wanted to survive even after committing suicide. He had survived so far only because he trusted his instincts. The Apeman reached to the conclusion that he would not ‘exist’ if he commits suicide. Recently he had herded cattle and his likes on a mesa. Now he was most powerful amongst all hilltop habitations. He was Seer in the eyes of his people. He knew about some others of his kind who lived on the same island, but thought and acted differently. But he kept his own kind away from those contaminated species. So The Apeman decided to return without committing suicide.

The Modern Man was looked down upon with contempt from The Apeman and The Superman. He was left alone at the bridge. He thought that not only the other ‘classes’ but his own kind also hated him for what he was and what he had accomplished, by inheriting sustained variation due to his constant 'struggle for existence'.

The variations were infinite and inheritance was never absolute. Moreover, he could never know if the variation would be beneficial or harmful to his species in the future, even though they helped him in survival. The struggle that was once need of the hour became his inherited trait.

The ‘fear’ was now an inherent part of his ‘psyche’. He had created new ‘phantoms’ to be afraid of. All phantoms, since the beginning were byproducts of ‘death’. The modern man was determined to conquer this fear. He wanted ‘Nirvana’ not only for himself, but for the entire race of modern mankind. He acknowledged himself as ‘absurd comedy of reproduction, and had no interest in perpetuating a comedy that turns into tragedy. Death was the only rational solution.

So he jumped from the bridge.

Surprisingly, he did not fell in the river. His location was restored by a electromagnetic device. The bridge was a modern bridge made by modern technology. Nothing could fall in the river which could pollute it. The sensors observed that the Modern Man had contaminated mind. The sensor also suggested the Modern Man to read the "The Waste Land" By T.S.Eliot.

Keep reading for the interpretation of "The Waste Land" by the Modern Man.

© Vipin Behari Goyal

Other related post

Right to Die Denied